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The Hidden Meaning of Handwriting
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The Mark of Genius

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A Graphology Showcase


Research and Validation Studies
for Graphology

Some Listed Scientific Papers and Research about Handwriting Analysis


There is no doubt that handwriting analysis holds a lot of fascination for many people. And as it gains in popularity they would like to know if there has been any scientific research to back it up.

But there are many levels of handwriting analysis and misinformation abounds. There are fairground readings, side shows and slot machines in shopping malls where you can get a printout in seconds - all these come under the label of "graphology" or "handwriting analysis". 

Obviously this is not the real thing and can only discredit graphology as a whole. But this aspect of handwriting analysis is unfortunately widespread and of course it gives it a bad name. As a result there are many who will never appreciate the real value of handwriting analysis and under these circumstances one can’t really blame them for denouncing it.

For this reason I have put up the following list for your convenience. It is far from definitive or complete; and I apologize for any mistakes - but it should give you some idea of the extent of the research that has been done and is still being done to validate handwriting analysis.

My thanks to Jonathon Blake for supplying me with his list which I have reduced considerably.

I also have some other lists citing different research studies in graphology – among them a long list (entirely in French) sent to me by Professor Michel De Grave, a Psychoanalyst and founder of CEREG in Belgium. CEREG is the Centre of European Research and Study of Graphology (Cercle Européen de Recherches et d'études Graphologiques ).

The following list (arranged alphabetically and not according to date) is just a small sampling of the huge documentation that is available:


Research in graphology

APA Guidelines For Educational and Psychological Testing
American Psychological Association
APA: 1974.

Barrow, N K and Scott, R H
Validation of a personnel Selection System to meet EEOC Guidelines.
Journal Of Handwriting Psychology
1984, 1 (1), 15 - 17

Baruch Nevo,
Graphology Validation Studies in Israel.

Beumont, P. - British Journal of Psychiatry
Small handwriting in some patients with anorexia nervosa
1971. 119, 349-350,

Binet, Alfred L.
La graphologie et ses revelations sur le sexe, l'age et l'intelligence.
L'Ann,e Psychologique
1904: 10, 179-210

Broom, M E , Thompson, B & Bouton, M T
Sex Differences in Handwriting
Journal of Applied Psychology
1929, 13, 159-166

Bruchon-Schweitzer, M & Ferrieux, D
Une Enqete sur le recrutement en France
European Review of Applied Psychology
1991: 41, 9 - 19

Campbell, D T & Fiske, D W:
Convergent and Discriminant Validation by the Multitrait-MultiMethod Matrix.
Psychological Bulletin
1959, 56, 81 - 105.

Castelnuovo-Tedesco, P
Ratings of Intelligence and Personality from Handwriting
American Psychologist

Cattell, Raymond B
A Culture Free Intelligence Test I
Journal of Educational Psychology
March 1940: 31(30, 161 - 170

L'age et le sexe dans l',criture
Parigi: Adyar: 1924

Crumbaugh, J C & Stockholm, E
Validation of Graphoanalysis by 'Global' or 'Holistic' Method.
Perceptual And Motor Skills
1977, 44, 03 - 410.
( Crumbaugh 1977 )

Crumbaugh, J C
A Reply to 'Validity And Student Acceptance of A Graphoanalytic Approach To Personality.'
Journal of Personality Assessment.
1977 , 41, 351 - 352 .
( Crumbaugh 1977 )

Dennis, Wayne
Handwriting conventions as determinants of human figure drawings
Journal of Consulting Psychology
1958: 22, 293-295

Dennis, Wayne & Raskin, Evelyn
Further evidence concerning the effect of handwriting habits upon the location of drawing.
Journal of Consulting Psychology
1960, 24, 548-249

Eliasberg, Wladimir:
Political Graphology
Journal of Psychology
1943, 16, 177 - 201.

Eliasberg, Wladimir:
Methods in graphological diagnostics.
Psychiatric Quarterly
1952, 26, 399 - 413.

Epstein, L, Hartford, H & Tumarkin, I
The relationship of certain letter form variants in the handwriting of female subjects to their education.
Journal of Experimental Education
1961, 29(4), 385-392

Epstein, S
The Stability of Behavior: 1
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
1979, 37, 1097 - 1126

Epstein, S
The Stability Of Behavior: 2
American Psychologist
1980, 35, 790 - 806

Eysench, H. J. & Eyseneck, S. B. G.
Manual of the Eysenck Personality Inventory
London: University of London Press: 1964

Eysenck, H. J.
Graphological analysis and psychiatry: An Experimental Study
British Journal of Psychology
1945, 35, 70-81

Eysenck, H. J.
"Neuroticism" and handwriting
Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology
1948, 43, 94-96

Eysenck, H. J.
Handbook of Abnormal Psychology:
An Experimental Approach
London: Putnam: 1960

Eysenck, H. J.
Dimensions of Personality
London: 1961

Eysenck, H. J.
The Structure of Human Personality
London: Methuen: 1970

Eysenck, H J, and Gudjonsson, G
An Empirical Study of the Validity of Handwriting Analysis. Personality and Individual Differences
1986, 7, 263 - 264.

Fahrenburg, J.
University of Freiburg: PhD Dissertation: 1961

Fahrenburg, J & Conrad, W
Eine explorativ Faktorenanalyse Graphometrischer und Psyhcometrischer Daten
Zeitschrift fur Experimentalle und Angewande Psychologie
1964: 12: 223- 238

Fluckinger, Fritz A., Tripp, Clarence A., and Weinberg,George H:
A Review of Experimental Research in Graphology: 1933 - 1960.
Perceptual and Motor Skills
1961, 12, 67 - 90.
( Fluckinger 1961 )

Frederick, C J
Some phenomena affecting handwriting analysis
Perceptual And Motor Skills
1965. 20, 211 - 218.

Galbraith, Dorothy and Wilson, Warner:
Reliability of the Graphoanalytic Approach to Handwriting Analysis.
Perceptual And Motor Skills
1964, 19(2), 615 - 618.
( Galbraith 1964 )

Galdo, L:
Valore della scrittura dal punto di vista della
Scrittura onore Kiesow
1933, 149-159
( Galdo 1933 )

De wetenschappelijke grondslagen der graphologie.
Tijdschrift voor wetenschappelijke graphologie,
1932, 4, 5 - 7.

Groot, A D de:
Een experimenteel-statistische toetsing van karakterologische ( grafologische ) rapporten.
Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor Psychologie
1947, 2 (5) 380 - 473.

Groot, A D de:
Toetsing van grafologische rapporten. Een antwoord aan de heer Margadant.
Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor Psychologie,
1949, 4 (1) , 70 - 81.

Groot, A D de:
Grafologie en andere psychologische methoden.
De Grafologie, prae-adviezen en discussieverslagen van de Nederlandsch Ver. Bedriffspsychologie.
1954, 18, 8 - 17.

Guilford, J P:
New York: McGraw, 1959

Gundy, Lloyd W. Etienne Cabet:
A genealogical test of graphoanalysis
National Genealogical Society Quarterly
March 1990, Vol.78, No.1, p.39+

Hamid, Kate & Loewenthal
Inferring gender from handwriting in Urdu and English
The Journal of Social Psychology
December 1996: 136 (6), 778 - 783

Hansen, Mark
Handwriting Analysis under fire
ABA Journal
May 1997: 83, 76 - 79

Hatfield, Iris, E. Edward Peeples, PhD, and Robert O'Block, PhD
Examining Horizontal Lengths of Signatures in True vs False Statements
Human Graphics Center for Research and Information, 1994.

Hearns, Rudolph S.
Heredity of psychological types. A study of the handwriting of the Roosevelt families over 200 years
World Analyst
1959/60, No.1, pp.3-9

Hearns, Rudolph S
Reflexions sur les ,critures allemandes et nord-americaines.
La Graphologie
1974, 134

Hector Heinz:
Untersuchung zur Laiengraphologie.
Beihefte zur Schweizerischen Zeitschrift f?r Psychologie und ihre Anwendungen
1953, 20, 80 - 88.

Hearns, R. - Criminal Psychopathology,
The use of graphology in criminology
1972, 3, 461-464

Hector Heinz:
Das Methodenproblem der Graphologie.
Beihefte zur Schweizerischen Zeitschrift f?r Psychologie und ihre Anwendungen
1949, 18, 25 - 46.

Hofsommer, W. and Holdsworth, R and Seifert, T:
Reliabilit"tsfragen in der Graphologie.
Psychologie und Praxis
1965, 9 (1), 14 - 24.

Howes, R J
The Rorschach: Does it Have a Future?
Journal of Personality Assessment
1981, 45, 339 - 351 ????

Ianetta, Kimon and Reed Hayes, James F. Craine, PhD & Dennis G. McLaughlin, PhD
Facilitating Assessment of Dangerousness
by Using Characteristics of Handwriting Hawaii

Institut f?r Werbepsychologie und Marketkundung.
Die Verteilung von Handschriften-Merkmalen innerhalb der westdeutschen Bev"lkerung.
Praktische Psychologie
1966, 20(9), 211-214

Jacoby, Hans J:
De oorzaak van verkeerde graphologische diagnosen.
Tijdschrift voor wetenschappelijke Graphologie,
1930, 2, 88 - 90.

Jansen, Abraham:
Toetsing van grafologische uitspraken. Een Experimentele studie.
Amsterdam: F Van Rossen, 1963.

Jansen, Abraham:
Research noodzakelijke voorwaarde voor schoolgrafologie.
Tijdschrift Orthopedagogiek,
1965, 4(9), 230 - 235.

Jansen, Abraham:
Validation of Graphological Judgments: An Experimental Study.
The Hague: Mouton, 1973.

Jores, A
Handschrift und Lebensalter
Zeitschrift f?r Menschenkunde
1930: 6, 75-78

Kam, Moshe
Journal of Forensic Sciences
September 1997:

Keinan, G.
Can stress be measured by handwriting analysis ?
The effectiveness of the analytic method; discusses theoretical implications and possible advantages of using handwriting parameters as an indication of acute stress.

Applied Psychology--An International Review
Psychologies Appliquee-Revue International:
V0042 N2: APR 1993: pp. 153-170.

King, Leslie:
Graphology: An evaluation of some research
performed in its investigation.
Bountiful, UT: Leslie King: 1974

Klages, Ludwig
Der "Religiouse Kurve"
Zeitschurft f?r die gesamte Neurologie und Psychiatrie
1938: 163, 575-584

Klimonski, R J & Rafaeli, A:
Inferring Personal Qualities through Handwriting Analysis
Journal Of Occupational Psychology
1983, 56, 191 - 202

Kraus, Ron
Reliability and Validity of HWA compared to the standard battery.
PhD Thesis: 1993

Levy, Jerre & Reid, Marylou
Variations in writing posture and cerebral organization
October 1976, 194(4262), 337-339

Livingston, Orville B:
Frequency of certain characteristics in handwriting,
Pen-printing of two hundred people.
Journal of Forensic Sciences.
1963, 8(2), 250 - 258
( Livingston 1963 )

Lockowandte, Oskar
Present Status of the Investigation of Handwriting Psychology, as a Diagnostic Method.
J.S.A.S. Catalogue of Selected Documents in Psychology
1976, 6(1), 4

Lockowandte, Oskar:
Faktorenanalytische Validierung der Handschrift mit besonder Berucksichtigung projektiver Methoden.
Unpublished dissertation, University of Frieburg, 1966

Lockowandte, Oskar:
La validation de l',criture par analyse factorielle, en relation avec les methodes projectives.
La Graphologie,
1968, 109, 24

Lockowandte, Oskar:
Quantitative Ueberprufungsmethoden in der Graphologie.
Zeitschrift fur experimentelle und angewandte Psychologie.
1968, 15 (3), 487 - 530

Lockowandte, Oskar:
Present status of the investigation of handwriting psychology as a diagnostic method.
Catalog of Selected Documents in Psychology,
1976, 6, 4 - 5.

Lorr, Maurice and Golder, Jacob V:
Validation of some handwriting scales against personality inventory scores.
American Psychologist,
1948, 3, 262.

Mack, L.
Hemispheric Specialization for Handwriting in Right-Handers
Brain and Cognition; V0021 N1, pp 80-85,
Jan. 1993.

Maluf, Ued:
Notas sobre as tecnicas projectivas na investiagacao psicologica.
Boletim do Instituto de Psicologia,
1960, 10 ( 1-2 ), 14 - 27.

Mann, W Raymond:
A continuation of the search for objective graphological hypotheses.
Unpublished dissertation, University of Ottawa, 1961.

Marchesan, Marco:
Gli experimenti sulla scrittura da Binet ai nostri giorni.
Revista de Psicologia Normal e Pat¢logica.
1958, 4, 116 - 146.

Mehta, M K:
The Identification of Handwriting and the Close Examination of Experts.
Tripathi, 1970: Fourth Edition .
Tripathi, 1961: Second Edition.

Mengelberg, Paul M
Die symptome der Veralterung in der Handschrift
Zeitschrift f?r Menschenkunde
1965, 29, 3-27

Miller, James:
A Bibliography Of Handwriting Analysis: A Graphological Index.
Whitston Publishing Company: Troy, NY: 1982

M?hl, Anita M:
Report on twenty three years of research in handwriting.
Medical Woman's Journal
1948, 55, 27 - 31, 60.
1952, 59, 409 - 411

Naegler, Robert C:
A Validation study of personality assessment through Graphoanalysis.
Unpublished paper. Drury College.
International Graphoanalysis Society, 1960.
( Nagler 1960 )

Neter, E & Ben-Shakhar, G
The Predictive Validity of Graphological Inferences: A Meta-Analytical Approach
Personality and Individual Differences
1989, 10, 737 - 745.

Nevo, B:
Scientific Aspects Of Graphology: A Handbook
Springfield, IL: Thomas: 1986
( Nevo 1986 )

Nevo, B:
Reliability of Graphology: A Survey of the Literature in Scientific Aspects of Graphology:
A Handbook edited by B Nevo. Springfield, IL: Thomas: 1986
( Nevo 1986a)

Nevo, B
Validation of Graphology through Use of a Matching Method Based on Ranking.
Perceptual And Skills
1989: 69, 734 - 745.

Ouweleen, H W:
Schoolcijfers, korte graphologische analyse en schriftelijk onderzoek bij de voor-selectie.
Nederlandsch tijdschrift voor psychologie.
1950, 5(4), 324 - 342.

Ouweleen, H W:
Een wetenschappelijk onderzoek van grafologische uitspraken.
The Hague: Nederlandsch Ver. Bedrijfspychologie, 1963.

Paul-Mengeberg, M
Die Symptome der Veralterund in der handschrift
Zeitschrift Fur Mennschenkunde
1965, 29, 3-27

Pearl, R. A:
The value of handwriting in the neurological examination.
Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine,
1974, 41, 200 - 204.

Peeples, E E:
Training, Certification and Experience of handwriting Analysts.
Perceptual And Motor Skills
1990, 70: 1219 - 1226
( Peeples 1990 )

Pfanne, Heinrich.
Die Schriftexpertise und ihre Bedeutung f?r dier
Rudolstadt: Der Greifenverlag, 1955.

Popper, Karl R:
Science: Conjectures and Refutations
in Conjectures And Refutations
New York: Harper & Row, 1968.

Pokorny, Richard
Psychologie Der Handschrift
Munich: Kindler Verlag GmbH: 1973

Pritchard, Anita
Reliability of graphological judgments based on different tecniques of hwa.
date unknown;

Prystav, Gunther:
Interpretationsreliabilit"t in der Schriftpsychologie.
Schweizerische Zeitschrift f?r Psychologie und ihre Anwendungen.
1971, 30 ( 4 ), 320 - 332.

Pulver, Max
Symbolik des Schriftfeldes
Zeitschrift f?r Menschenkunde
1930: 6, 53-63

Pulver, Max
Symbolik der Handschrift
Zurich & Leipzig: Fussli: 1940

Rafaeli, A & Klimoski, R J:
Predicting Sales Success through handwriting analysis: An evaluation of effects of training and handwriting sample content.
Journal Of Applied Psychology
1983 ( 68 ) 212 - 217

Raices, Nuestras
Handwriting: a unique tool for the genealogist
Our Roots Quarterly,
Summer 1994, Vol.6, No.2, pp.43+

Ras, Matilda:
Historia de la escritura y grafolog¡a.
Madrid: Editorial Plus-Ultra, 1951.

Rivkai, I
al hahipazon v'haitiyut bikhtav uv'al pe
1948/9, 6, 476-480

Rosenthal, R:
Experimenter Effects in Behavioral Research.
New York: Appleton Century Crofts, 1966

Sassoon, R. - Children's Handwriting As An Indicator of Stress;
International Journal of Psychology;
V0027 N3-4, p 440, Jun-Aug 1992.

Schmitt, J, Neal, J & Klimoski, R:
Research Method's in Human Resources Management.
South Western Publications, Cincinnati, OH: 1991.

Schwarz, Daniel
A validity study assessing integrity.

Seifert, Theodor:
Faktoreanalyse einger Schriftmerkmale.
Zeitschrift f?r experimentelle und Angewandte Psychologie.
1964, 11 ( 4 ), 645 - 666.

Shimrat, Niusia
Lateral dominance and direction orientation in the writing of American and Israeli children.
Dissertation Abstracts International
1970, 31(4-b). 2267

Shimrat, Niusia
The impact of laterality and cultural background on the development of writing skills.
1973, 11(2), 239-242

Sovik, N; Arntzen O & Thygesen, R
Effects of Feedback in Graphonomics: Contemporary Research in Handwriting edited by Kao, H S R; Van Galen, G P & Hoosian,
R: Amsterdam, The Netherlands: 1986.

Stabholz, M S
Individual differences in handwriting of monozygotic and dizogtic twins in relation to personality and genetic factors
University of London: PhD Thesis: 1981

Stangohr, Gordon R
Opposite hand writings
Journal of Forensic Sciences
1968, 13(3), 376-389

Starch, D
Educational Psychology
New York: Macmillan: 1927

Steiner, Dirk D; Stephen W Gilliland
Fairness reactions to personnel selection techniques in France and the United States
Journal of Applied Psychology
April 1996: 81(2), 134 - 142

Thomas, D L
Validity of Graphoanalysis in the Assessment of
Personality Characteristics.
Master's Thesis, Colorado State University: 1966
( Thomas 1966 )

Timm, Ulrich:
Graphometrie als psychologischer Test
Psychologische Forschung
1967, 30, 307 - 356

Van Der Hout, C. G:
Schrijven. Proeve van een fenomenologische benadering.
Groningen: J B Wolters, 1967.

Vestewig, Richard; Santee, Aileen H. and Moss, Martin K:
Validity and student acceptance of a graphoanalytic approach to personality.
Journal of Personality Assessment,
1976, 40 (6), 592 - 598.

Vuiller, H Richard
Evidence of Character To Prove Conduct: Illusion,

Illogic and Injustice in The Courtroom.
University of Pennsylvania Law Review
April 1982: 130(4), 845 - 891

Wallner, Tuet:
Die Statistik in der Graphologie.
Zeitschrift f?r Menschenkunde
1955, 19, 129 - 132

Wallner, Tuet:
Die Zuverl"ssigkeit der graphologischen
1956, 3, 251 - 254

Wallner, Tuet:
Graphologie als Objekt statisticher Untersuchungen
Psychologische Rundschau
1965, 16 ( 4 ), 282 - 298.

Wallner, Tuet:
A Necessary correction of a validating research study in handwriting psychology by D Kimmel and M Werheimer.
Journal of Projective Techniques and Personality
1967, 31(2), 70 - 71.

Wallner, Tuet:
Orientering i skriftpsykilogins teori och forskingsresultat.
Norkisk Psykologi
1967, 19(3), 162 - 173.

Wallner, Tuet:
Die Reliabilit"t schriftpsychologischer Begutachtungen.
Zeitschrift f?r Menschenkunde
1969, 33, 191 - 197.

Wallner, Tuet:
Der Unterschied zwischen Schriftpsychologie und Graphologie.
Psychologie und Praxis
1971, 15(1_, 1 - 8.

Wallner, Tuet
Bemerkungen zu W H Muellers Untersuchungen uber die Objecktivitat von Anumutungsqualitaten in der Handschrift.
Psychologische Beitrage
1961, 5, 586-596

Wallner, Tuet:
De fundamentele Werkhypothesen der Schriftpsychologie.
Acta Graphologica,
1973, 3, 3 - 11.

Wallner, Tuet:
Planung und Durchf?hrung von schriftpsychologischen Untersuchungen.
Zeitschrift f?r experimentelle und angewandte Psychologie.
1970, 17(2), 316 - 256.

Wallner, Tuet:
Hypotheses of Handwriting Psychology and their Verification.
Professional Psychology
1975, 6 ( 1) , 8 - 16

Weiss, A A
Directionality in four Bender-Gestlat figures III
Perceptual and Motor Skills
1975, 40(2), 595-598

Zweigenhaft, Richard L & Marlowe, David:
Signature size: Studies in expressive movements.
Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology.
1973, 40(3), 469 - 473.




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